Educational Technology refers to application of scientific knowledge about learning and conditions of learning in order to improve the effectiveness of teaching, learning and evaluation.

Examples of educational technology include;
  • Radios
  • Televisions
  • Computers
  • Projectors
  • Printers
  • Internet
  • Social Media
  • Software Packages

Purpose of using technology in education

1️⃣ To reach more students 🌎: Technology transcends physical boundaries, making education accessible to a global audience.

2️⃣ To transmit information like e-mails πŸ“§: Digital communication tools streamline information dissemination, enhancing communication between educators and learners.

3️⃣ Assisting in the practice of specific skills 🎯: Interactive simulations and virtual labs allow students to hone practical skills in a safe and controlled environment.

4️⃣ Serving as a role model like when watching videos of procedures πŸ“Ή: Video demonstrations and online tutorials provide real-life examples, fostering better understanding.

5️⃣ Developing certain models or teaching aids to assist in teaching 🧰: Technology aids in the creation of interactive models and multimedia presentations, enriching teaching materials.

6️⃣ To offer greater opportunities for independent study πŸ“š: Online resources enable self-paced learning, empowering students to explore topics at their own speed.

7️⃣ Contributes to the provision of feedback by providing students responses in case of inquiry πŸ“: Technology facilitates prompt assessment and feedback, enhancing the learning process.

8️⃣ Personalized learning experiences πŸŽ“: Adaptive learning software tailors content to individual student needs, optimizing comprehension and retention.

9️⃣ Collaboration and teamwork 🀝: Digital platforms promote collaboration among students and with instructors, fostering teamwork skills.

πŸ”Ÿ Assessment and analytics πŸ“Š: Technology enables data-driven assessment and analytics to monitor student progress and adjust teaching strategies accordingly.

Others purposes include;

1️⃣ Accessibility and inclusivity ♿️: Assistive technologies make education more accessible to students with disabilities, promoting inclusivity.

2️⃣ Innovative teaching methods πŸ“²: Technology allows educators to experiment with innovative teaching approaches, making lessons more engaging and interactive.

3️⃣ Global learning experiences 🌍: Virtual exchanges and international collaborations expose students to diverse perspectives and cultures.

4️⃣ Lifelong learning 🌟: Technology encourages continuous learning beyond traditional classroom settings, supporting lifelong education.

5️⃣ Research and information access πŸ“–: Online databases and research tools facilitate access to a vast array of academic resources.

6️⃣ Environmental sustainability 🌱: Digital textbooks and online materials reduce the need for physical resources, contributing to a more eco-friendly learning environment.


1️⃣ It makes education more productive πŸ“ˆ: Educational technology enhances efficiency by streamlining administrative tasks, automating assessments, and providing tools for data analysis. This productivity boost allows educators to focus more on teaching and students to spend their time learning.

2️⃣ It can give instructions a more scientific base πŸ§ͺ: Educational technology facilitates data-driven decision-making. Educators can collect and analyze data on student performance to tailor instructional methods, ensuring that teaching is evidence-based and targeted to specific needs.

3️⃣ It makes education more individualized πŸ§‘β€πŸ’»: Technology enables personalized learning experiences. Students can access a wealth of resources and adaptive learning platforms that adapt to their unique learning styles and pace, making education more tailored to individual needs.

4️⃣ It makes access to education more equal 🌐: Technology breaks down geographical and socioeconomic barriers to education. Online courses and digital resources provide access to quality education regardless of a student’s location or financial resources.

5️⃣ It makes access to education more immediate πŸ“²: The internet and digital learning platforms offer on-demand access to educational content. Students can access lectures, materials, and resources instantly, reducing wait times and enhancing the immediacy of learning.

6️⃣ It fosters interactive and engaging learning πŸ“±: Educational technology includes multimedia elements, gamification, and interactive simulations that make learning more engaging and enjoyable for students. This interactive approach enhances comprehension and retention.

7️⃣ It encourages self-directed learning πŸ“˜: Technology empowers students to take ownership of their education. They can explore topics of interest, conduct research, and set their learning goals, fostering a sense of responsibility and autonomy.

8️⃣ It facilitates collaboration and communication 🀝: Digital tools enable students and educators to collaborate seamlessly, whether through online discussions, virtual group projects, or communication apps. This promotes teamwork and communication skills.

9️⃣ It supports lifelong learning 🌟: Educational technology encourages continuous learning beyond formal education. Online courses, webinars, and resources are readily available for individuals to upskill and stay current in their fields.

1️⃣0️⃣ It prepares students for a digital world πŸ’»: By using technology in education, students gain valuable digital literacy and tech skills, which are essential for success in the modern workforce.

Teaching Aids and Technology


Teaching aides are materials used in teaching to help the learners grasp a given concept better or easily.
  • Teaching resources/materials are things that facilitate the teaching process. I.e. textΒ books, classrooms, chalk, black board etc.
  • The issue of teaching aides is closely linked to information technology because a lot ofΒ technology is now being used as teaching aides.

Types of Teaching Aids

  1. Visual Aids: Visual aids refer to instructional tools that engage the sense of sight. Examples include actual objects, models, pictures, charts, maps, flashcards, flannel boards, bulletin boards, chalkboards, overhead projectors, and slides. Among these, chalkboards are among the most commonly used.

  2. Audio: Aids Audio aids are teaching tools that involve the sense of hearing. Examples include radios, tape recorders, and gramophones.

  3. Audio-VisualΒ Aids: Audio-visual aids combine both visual and auditory elements to enhance the learning experience. Examples include television and film projectors.

Purpose of Using Teaching Aids

The utilization of teaching aids serves several important purposes in education:

  1. Engaging Senses: Teaching aids help engage multiple senses, such as hearing, sight, and touch, making the learning process more immersive and effective.

  2. Clarifying Abstract Concepts: They make abstract concepts more tangible and understandable, enhancing students’ comprehension.

  3. Enhancing Learning and Retention: Teaching aids enrich and intensify the learning experience, leading to better retention and understanding of the material.

  4. Practical Skill Reinforcement: They illustrate and reinforce practical skills, making complex procedures easier to grasp.

  5. Motivating Learning: Properly used teaching aids can motivate students by introducing variety and excitement into the learning environment.

  6. Facilitating Conceptual Thinking: Teaching aids provide concrete examples that facilitate students’ conceptual thinking and problem-solving abilities.

  7. Creating Interest: They create an engaging and stimulating learning environment, reducing anxiety and boredom while presenting information in captivating ways.

  8. Expanding Vocabulary: Teaching aids contribute to expanding students’ vocabulary by introducing them to new terms and concepts.

  9. Providing Direct Experience: Teaching aids offer students direct experiences, helping them gain a deeper understanding of the subject matter.

Factors Considered While Selecting Teaching Aids

When a teacher is considering the use of audiovisual aids, several factors should be taken into account:

  1. Instructional Objectives: The teacher should assess whether the lesson’s objectives warrant the use of teaching aids and how the selected aid aligns with achieving those objectives.

  2. Individual Needs and Learning Styles: Consideration should be given to materials that present information in various formats. Utilizing videos, images, and diverse media can make learning more engaging and cater to different learning styles.

  3. Class Size: The size of the class affects the choice of teaching aid in terms of material size and visibility, ensuring that all students can adequately view and interact with it.

  4. Cognitive Nature and Age of Learners: The age and cognitive development of the learners are crucial factors. Materials should be chosen that suit the learners’ attention spans, interests, and developmental stages.

  5. Teacher’s Ability to Use the Material: The instructor should possess the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively use the teaching aid in the teaching and learning process.

  6. Availability of the Aid: It’s essential to ensure that the chosen teaching aid is readily accessible to both the teacher and the students.

  7. Amount of Advance Preparation Needed: Considering the time required for preparation is vital to prevent unnecessary delays and disruptions during lessons.

  8. Degree of Disruption During Preparation and Use: Teaching aids should not distract or detract from the main focus of the lesson but should enhance the learning experience without causing undue disruption.

Characteristics of Good Teaching Aids

Effective teaching aids share several characteristics:

  1. Alignment with Objectives: They should be directly related to the teaching objectives to support the intended learning outcomes.

  2. Relevance to Learners: Teaching aids should be appropriate for the intellectual maturity and previous experiences of the learners.

  3. Meaningful and Purposeful: They should serve a clear and meaningful purpose in the context of the lesson.

  4. Motivating: Teaching aids should be interesting and relevant to students’ interests, thus motivating them to engage with the material.

  5. Accessibility: Ideally, teaching aids should be improvised or made from locally available materials, ensuring easy access.

  6. Simplicity: They should be simple and straightforward to avoid confusion or complexity.

  7. Cost-Effective: Good teaching aids are cost-effective or affordable to ensure they can be used in a variety of educational settings.

  8. Visibility: They should be large enough in size to be visible to the entire class, promoting engagement for all students.

  9. Current and Up-to-Date: Teaching aids should reflect the most current subject matter, avoiding outdated or obsolete information.

  10. Portability: They should be easily transported and set up, allowing for flexibility in their use across different teaching environments.

πŸ“½οΈ Advantages of Audiovisual Aids πŸ“š

Teaching aids play a very important role in the Teaching-Learning process. The importance of teaching aids is as follows:

  1. πŸš€ Motivation: Teaching aids motivate the students so that they can learn better.

  2. 🎯 Clarification: Through teaching aids, the teacher clarifies the subject matter more easily.

  3. 🧠 Discouragement of Cramming: Teaching aids can facilitate the proper understanding of the students, discouraging the act of cramming.

  4. πŸ“– Increase in Vocabulary: Teaching aids help to increase the vocabulary of the students more effectively.

  5. 🏫 Lively and Active Classroom: Teaching aids make the classroom lively and active, avoiding dullness.

  6. 🌟 Direct Experience: Teaching aids provide direct experience to the students.

  7. ⏱️ Time and Energy Savings: They save time and energy for both teachers and students by simplifying complex issues within a short period of time.

  8. πŸ’‘ Development of Higher Abilities: Teaching aids stimulate imagination, thinking, and reasoning power of students.

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Chalkboard πŸ“

The chalkboard is one of those aids that is usually present in the classroom. Some are portable and others are fixed. You can write on them during classroom sessions. It is possible to use different colors of chalk for writing a topic, new words, exercises, illustrations, brainstorming ideas, writing drafts, drawing pictures.

Guidelines for Using Chalkboards

  1. Make sure everything needed for using the chalkboard should be kept ready before class begins.
  2. Clean the board before starting class and leave it cleaned after the class.
  3. Divide the board into two or three parts by drawing vertical lines.
  4. It should bear the date and the main topic of the day.
  5. Diagrams and pictures can be sketched before the class on a flip chart.
  6. Do not speak to the chalkboard. First talk to the class before writing on the board.
  7. Do not crowd the chalkboard with too much matter.
  8. Rub off the board periodically if you do not need the stuff.
  9. Ensure that the handwriting is clear and readable.

Advantages of Chalkboard

  • πŸš€ No advanced preparation required.
  • πŸ’‘ The chalkboard is easy to use.
  • πŸ’° It is almost always available and is cheap.
  • 🧠 It helps to focus the students on the lecture.
  • πŸ“ It is useful in building up maps, graphs, and diagrams.
  • ✍️ It improves on writing skills of the person.
  • πŸ“Š Information on the board is very useful for recapitulation (summarizing and restating main points).
  • πŸ”Œ Technology is not dependent on electricity.

Disadvantages of Chalkboard

  • πŸ–‹οΈ It needs some skill to be able to use the chalkboard effectively.
  • πŸ•°οΈ Occasionally, the teacher has to turn his/her back to the students.
  • πŸ•’ Time-consuming if you have a lot to write.
  • πŸ‘€ Handwriting may be difficult to read (legibility, size, glare, etc.).
  • 🧼 Can’t go back to something you’ve erased.
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Flip Chart πŸ“„

The flip chart is made of paper of different quality which you can write on using marker pens of different colors just like the chalkboard. The difference is that the flip chart is portable and can be pre-prepared where you can draw your illustrations prior.

Advantages of Flip Chart

  • πŸ’° The flip chart is inexpensive.
  • πŸŽ’ It is easy to carry and the information does not have to be removed from the classroom; it can be referred to later.
  • 🌈 It can be used to capture ideas during brainstorming, a lecture, or during revision.
  • πŸ–ŒοΈ It can have diagrams and whatever else the teacher needs to show.
  • πŸ“† The teacher can decide and prepare it in advance.

Disadvantages of Flip Chart

  • πŸ–οΈ It needs skill to use effectively.
  • πŸ“ Most educators tend to use it as a scribbling surface (write on it carelessly) and fail to demonstrate its effective use.
  • πŸ“Š Flipcharts should be clear and simple with a few points only. They should not be cluttered with too much information. Color contrasts increase their effectiveness.
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Charts and Models πŸ“ŠπŸ­

These are already made visual aids usually used to display factual data in different forms.


  • πŸ“ˆ They emphasize the verbal content and can act as operational guides.
  • πŸ›οΈ Models provide three-dimensional visual impressions which might be difficult for the students to imagine.


  • πŸ”„ They need to be revised at intervals to make sure they are up to date.
Graphics πŸ“ŠπŸ“ˆπŸ–ΌοΈ

These are non-language printed aides, such as flow charts, graphs, line drawings, and illustrations. They are used to show relations and to emphasize specific aspects.


  • 🌟 They present the full scope of the information in a clearly illustrative manner.
  • 🧐 They stimulate interest.
  • πŸ€” They help students comprehend and remember complex information.


  • πŸ™ˆ They are inappropriate for the visually impaired.
Handouts πŸ“„πŸ–¨οΈ

Handouts are well-planned documents prepared by the teacher for his/her students in order to promote their participation in the teaching-learning process. They ensure every student has access to the same information and can review that information whenever necessary.

Advantages of Using Handouts

  • 🎯 Keeps you and students focused.
  • πŸ“š Useful as study aids.
  • πŸ‘₯ Good for absent students.
  • πŸ” Can cover previous material.
  • πŸ“ Can include review or supplementary/look-ahead material.
  • 🧾 Ensures consistency.
  • πŸ”„ Reusable.


  • πŸ“– Don’t facilitate deviation from the lesson plan.
  • πŸ“– Might be considered a study-aid crutch where the teacher puts emphasis on reading the content instead of explaining.
  • πŸ“† Some handouts are not up-to-date or may have brief contents. Mini Projector, CLOKOWE 2023 Upgraded Portable Projector with  9000 Lux and Full HD 1080P, Movie Projector Compatible with iOS/Android  Phone/Tablet/Laptop/PC/TV Stick/Box/USB Drive/DVD/Game Console : Electronics
Projector πŸ“½οΈ

A projector is an electrical device that enlarges words or diagrams on a screen or clear wall. It’s a very popular and versatile visual aid that has been made available to the modern-day lecturer.


  • 🧳 The machine is portable.
  • πŸ’‘ Little technical attention is required if it is looked after well.
  • πŸ’‘ It can be used without darkening the room.
  • 🎨 It allows for a lot of creativity because the teacher can create overlays and other varieties of presentations.
  • πŸ“‹ The transparency is easy to prepare.
  • πŸ‘©β€πŸ« During use, the teacher does not turn his/her back to the learners.
  • πŸ“š The teacher can prepare in advance.
  • πŸ“– There is no need to rely on printed textbooks.
  • πŸ•’ Using a projector can save time used to write on a blackboard.


  • 🧾 The transparency paper can be expensive.
  • πŸ’‘ It can only be used where there is electricity.
  • πŸ‘€ You need to pay attention to the focus so that the learners see clearly. Position it so that all students can see.
  • πŸ‘‰ Use a pointer rather than fingers. Point on the machine, not on the wall (depends on pointer).
Computers πŸ–₯️

Computers are being used in teaching because they have the advantages of speed, accuracy in transmitting information; they are convenient and store large amounts of information. Once prepared, the teacher does not need to be there. Students can learn at their own pace.


  • πŸ–±οΈ Computers do not provide adequate guidance for psychomotor skills. They need to be complemented by other methods.
  • πŸ”Œ Some may have short battery life span, so they are not reliable without electricity.
  • πŸ’Ύ Data can be lost when the devices get lost or do not function well.
  • πŸ’° Computers are generally expensive for some schools.
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