Philosophy refers to search for wisdom and truth or the study of the principles of human behavior and reasoning

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
There are various ways how learners can use to search for the truth of what has been taught.
These philosophies used in education include:
  • Idealism
  • Realism
  • Naturalism
  • Pragmatism


  • It is derived from the term ideals. It is a philosophical approach that believes that ideas are the only true and reality worth knowing.
  • Truth, knowledge and values are simply the conception of the mind or spirit; therefore the mind is the controller and explainer of the phenomenon that we are seeing or have heard e.g things such as planets, legends, plants exist because the mind that perceives them.
  • The physical world can be changed through the ideas or imagination of man. If one believes that the world is round even when he/she has not seen it is the truth. This philosophy is mainly used in religious doctrines.
  • In education, philosophy is mainly applied by junior students where many things taught have not been seen but the mind needs to believe that they exist like the brain, heart, nerve transmission.
Implications of Idealism in education.
  • Education is supposed to be a process of turning the eye from darkness into light.
  • The role of education is to activate the mind, so that through its reasoning, it can discover knowledge. It places importance on question-answer or logical reasoning as the method of acquiring information or gaining knowledge.


Idealism is like dreaming about your favorite things. It’s a way of thinking that believes the stuff in our minds is the most important and real. This includes things we know, like how to be good, and things we can’t see, like love.

Imagine you have a superhero friend in your head. This friend helps you understand everything around you – from big stuff like stars and stories, to smaller things like plants. This idea says that because you can think about them, they exist in a special way.

Guess what? Idealism also says that what you think can change the world! For instance, if lots of people imagine the Earth is round, even if they’ve never seen it from space, it becomes a powerful idea.

This way of thinking isn’t just for school, it’s also used in believing things like kindness and hope. Even though you can’t touch these, they’re real because people think about them and act on them.

In school, when you learn about things you can’t see, like your brain or your heart, idealism helps you believe in them. It’s like having faith in things that are real even though you can’t hold them in your hand.

Here’s a cool thought: education, which means learning new things, is like turning on a light in your mind. It helps your brain discover knowledge and answers. Idealism likes when you ask questions and use your brain to figure things out. It’s like being a detective and finding clues to understand the world better.

So, idealism is all about how your thoughts and ideas are super important, and they can make a big difference in the world, even if you can’t see them with your eyes.


The term ‘realism’, derived from the word ‘real‘, refers to the theory that whatever knowledge we receive through the senses (sight, touch, smell, etc.) is a true reflection of what really exists. Things we see or perceive are real, and knowledge acquired through senses only is true.

  • This philosophy is applied by most curious learners who will only believe in things they can sense. For example, you can know that fire burns after touching it.
Implications of Realism in Education
  • The arrangement of the world into patterns implies that knowledge is classified according to disciplines or subjects. Hence, the realists suggest that the curriculum should be broad-based and include a variety of subjects, especially science subjects.
  • Therefore, no single subject/discipline can be adequate to express the whole truth of the matter.
  • There are no bright/dull children; they only differ in their rate of grasping knowledge.


Realism is like believing your eyes, ears, and nose. It’s the idea that what you see, feel, or smell is the real deal. Everything you sense is like a true picture of what’s actually there.

Imagine you’re a super-spy using your senses to find clues. Realism says that the things you find with your senses are true and exist. Like, if you touch fire and it burns, that’s real knowledge.

Realism is perfect for curious learners who trust their senses. They believe things when they can see, touch, or experience them.

In school, realism helps us organize knowledge into different parts, like subjects in school. It’s like putting puzzles together to understand everything better. Realists think that schools should teach many different things, especially science, to get a full picture of the world.

Realism also reminds us that every person is like a learning champion. Some people learn fast, and some take more time, but it doesn’t mean anyone is better or worse. We all just learn at our own pace.

So, realism is all about trusting your senses, using them to learn lots of things, and understanding that we’re all amazing learners in our own way.



  • Naturalism views that nature is the source of knowledge.
  • Here the naturalists also believed that the process of growth and development in man was the result of force of energy prevailed in nature.
  • In education, naturalists want educators to focus on things that exist in nature so that learners can connect to real life.
Education Implications of Naturalism:
  • Naturalism considers the child as a gift of nature with potentialities for natural growth according to the laws of nature.
  • The powers of the child should be developed in natural ways by allowing the child to freely interact with nature.
  • The curriculum should provide concrete and real experiences in a natural context, i.e., the child should learn by interacting with nature.
  • Morality and character are learned directly with the help of natural consequences. It advocates learning without tears; this means that in a learning set-up, never punish the child. If there is punishment needed, nature will take its course and punish the child.
  • Inequalities and bad behaviors are a result of the child’s intercourse with the corrupted society.


Naturalism is like learning from nature itself. It says that nature is where we find all our knowledge.

Imagine that nature is like a big, powerful force that helps us grow and change. Naturalism believes that the way we become smarter and better is because of the energy from nature.

In school, naturalism tells teachers to focus on things we see in nature. This way, we can learn about things that happen in real life.

What Naturalism Means for School: Think of every child as a special gift from nature. They have their own unique abilities, just like nature intended.

Kids should learn and grow in a way that feels natural. It’s like playing outside and exploring nature – that’s how we learn best.

School subjects should be connected to real things we find in nature. Imagine going on a nature adventure to learn about science and other cool stuff.

When it comes to being good and having good character, nature teaches us. So, teachers don’t need to be too strict. If we make a mistake, nature will show us how to fix it.

Remember, when people do unfair or bad things, it’s often because they’ve been influenced by a not-so-great society.

Naturalism is all about learning from nature, growing the way we’re meant to, and understanding that nature is a powerful teacher that guides us to be our best selves.



It comes from the Greek word “pragma,” which means work/action. This is a philosophy that judges all things in terms of their practical consequences. It holds the view that for anything to be called knowledge, it should produce a physical observable/tangible change in things.

  • Only those things that are experienced/observed are real.
Education Implications of Pragmatism:
  • The idea of placing children in the most desirable environment for their education.
  • The ideal education as being exposed to many experiences.
  • “Learning by doing,” which encourages the child to learn through activities.


Pragmatism is like focusing on what works in real life. The word comes from “pragma,” which means action or work. This way of thinking believes that the most important thing is what happens because of what we do.

Imagine if something doesn’t make a real difference – according to pragmatism, it’s not really useful. This philosophy thinks that for something to be considered knowledge, it should actually change things in a noticeable way.

Pragmatism says that only things we can see or experience are truly real.

What Pragmatism Means for School: Think about being in a place where you can learn the best. Pragmatism likes that idea, too. It’s all about making sure students are in an environment that helps them learn well.

Pragmatism also loves the idea of learning from lots of different experiences. It’s like collecting different tools to solve problems.

Remember when you learn best? It’s when you’re doing things, right? Pragmatism agrees. Learning by doing, like hands-on activities, is a big part of this philosophy.

Pragmatism is about focusing on what’s practical and useful, finding the best way to learn, and making sure that what we learn helps us change the world around us.

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