Assessment and Evaluation

Assessment and Evaluation

Assessment and Evaluation

Assessment and Evaluation of Learning 

Assessment of Learning is the process of finding out how much the  learners have achieved during or after teaching. 

Therefore, it refers to all strategies employed by the teacher to determine the  extent of ability or performance in the learner during the instruction period or  after teaching has been done. 

Evaluation of learning is the interpretation of the teacher about the  performance of the learner.  

Therefore, it is the conclusion made by the teacher about the performance  of the learner depending on the learning objectives earlier set.  


Assessment: How much have they achieved/learnt? 

Evaluation: Is their level of achieving/learning enough according to the  teaching and learning objectives I set? 

Thus, Evaluation is an effect of Assessment (Any evaluation starts with  assessment and any assessment becomes useless without evaluation). 

Purpose/Aims of assessment and evaluation:  

  1. To establish or to determine the level of learning  
  2. To identify areas of emphasis 
  3. It makes learners aware of their ability 
  4. It helps the teacher to plan appropriately for the next group of learners. 
  5. It helps to grade/categorize learners 
  6. For verification/determining actual competence of the individual  
  7. For future planning purposes. 

Types of Assessment and Evaluation

Assessment and evaluation are essential processes in education that help measure and interpret learning outcomes. Here are the three main types of assessment and evaluation:

  1. Pre-course/Diagnostic Assessment and Evaluation: This type of assessment occurs before the lesson or course begins. It aims to measure and interpret the existing knowledge and potential of students. By assessing what students already know, teachers can tailor their instruction to meet the specific needs of each learner.

  2. Formative Assessment and Evaluation: Formative assessment takes place during the lesson or course and focuses on measuring and interpreting learning progress. It provides ongoing feedback to students, helping them identify areas of improvement and adjust their learning strategies accordingly. Teachers use formative assessment to monitor student understanding and make necessary instructional adjustments.

  3. Summative Assessment and Evaluation: Summative assessment occurs at the end of the lesson or course to measure and interpret the overall learning outcomes. It evaluates students’ mastery of the subject matter and their ability to apply what they have learned. Summative assessments often take the form of tests, projects, or presentations and provide a comprehensive understanding of students’ knowledge and skills.

Development of Assessment and Evaluation Tools 

Multiple-Choice Questions: Answer required is picked out of several  alternatives provided 

Structured Questions/Fill-ins: Answer required is definite/fixed e.g. Yes, No,  Kampala 

Short essay Questions: Answer requiring several but brief ideas 

Long essay Questions: Answer requiring several and detailed ideas

Practical Questions: Hands on Assessment e.g Demonstrate oral care using simulation. 

Qualities of a Good Assessment and Evaluation Tool 

  1. Validity: A good assessment tool should measure what it is intended to measure. It should have well-designed items or questions that accurately assess the specific knowledge or skill you want to evaluate. The tool should align with its intended purpose.

  2. Reliability: A reliable assessment tool produces consistent results. Even when different groups of students or different examiners administer the test, the outcomes should be similar. This consistency ensures that the tool is dependable and trustworthy.

  3. Practicability: An effective assessment tool should be easy to design, prepare, and score. It should be accessible and convenient to administer. The materials used for the assessment should be readily available and manageable. Practicality ensures that the assessment process is smooth and feasible.

  4. Standardization: To ensure fairness and comparability, the assessment should be conducted under the same conditions for all participants. This includes having a consistent timetable, duration, and a unified marking guide. Standardization helps create a level playing field for all individuals being assessed.

  5. Regulated Difficulty: The assessment should strike a balance in terms of difficulty. It should not be overly challenging or too easy. Ideally, a reasonable percentage of students should excel (not exceeding 70%), while a certain percentage should not fail (not exceeding 30%). This controlled difficulty ensures a fair assessment.

  6. Originality: It is important that assessment items or questions are not directly copied from previous tools. The tool should have fresh and unique content to maintain its integrity and avoid bias or predictability.

  7. Norms and Pass Marks: A good assessment tool should have established norms and pass marks. For example, there should be predetermined scores that indicate acceptable and unacceptable performance levels. These norms help in categorizing and evaluating the results consistently. For instance, achieving 80% and above may be considered as a D1 level.

  8. Objectivity: The assessment tool should focus on testing a specific attribute or ability objectively. It should not be influenced by personal biases or subjective interpretations. Objectivity ensures that the assessment is fair and impartial.

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