Teaching & Learning Methods
Teaching Learning Methods (Styles)
Teaching teaching/learning method is a strategy chosen by a teacher to enable the learner to get the desired competence/ability/performance.
Types of teaching /learning methods
- Demonstration method
- Class discussion method
- Group discussion method
- Modelling method.
- Braining storming
- Expert Panel method
- Question and answer method
- Lecture method
- Discovery method
- Case study methods
- Role play method
- Field work
- Hybrid method
- Story telling method
Classification of teaching methods into two broad categories:
Teacher-Centered Methods: In teacher-centered methods, the teacher assumes the role of an expert or authority on the subject matter. Learners are seen as passive recipients of knowledge from the teacher. Examples of such methods include expository or lecture methods, where learners have minimal or no involvement in the teaching process. These methods are often referred to as “closed-ended” due to the limited engagement of learners.
Student-Centered Methods: In student-centered methods, the teacher takes on the role of both a teacher and a learner. The teacher becomes a facilitator and collaborator, while also being open to learning from the students. Lawrence Stenhouse described this approach as one where the teacher’s intellectual horizons are extended rather than constrained in the classroom. Examples of student-centered methods include discussion methods.
Teaching Methods and there advantages and disadvantages.
|This involves the teacher giving large volumes of content to the learners in a short period of time, assuming that learners can cater for their learning since they are mature and oriented about what is being taught.
|– Time-saving for teachers and efficient for delivering information
– Suitable for large groups
– Less physically demanding for teachers
|– May not engage all learners effectively
– Reduced teacher
-student interaction and personalized feedback
– Can promote learner passivity and lack of engagement
It involves telling learners, task them to demonstrate by showing skill/performance you want them to learn, then return to demonstrate and comment on their performance i.e. teaching by showing the skill required.
Teacher return demonstrates
❖ It is a learner-centered method, learners participate and are active in their learning.
|– Effective for teaching practical skills and techniques
– Promotes hands-on learning
– Provides immediate feedback to learners
|– Time-consuming for both teachers and learners
– Requires skilled teachers and adequate resources
– Limited application to theoretical concepts
|Class Discussion Method
|Teacher facilitates discussions where learners actively participate, generate ideas, and receive guidance from the teacher.
|– Promotes critical thinking and problem-solving skills
– Encourages active participation and engagement
– Fosters peer learning
|– Time-consuming and challenging to manage larger groups effectively
– Requires skilled facilitation to ensure equal participation and avoid dominance by a few individuals
|Discovery Learning Method
This method involves learners searching for knowledge and details of what should be learnt by them, after proper definition of the task by the teacher.
The instructor gives the learners the task and sources of information, instructs them to share what they have discovered and then the instructor guides learning and taking notes.
|– Promotes active engagement and independent thinking
– Develops problem-solving and research skills
– Encourages curiosity
|– Time-consuming and requires structured guidance to prevent aimless exploration
– May lead to misconceptions if learners lack prior knowledge or guidance
|Teacher demonstrates a new or difficult skill, and learners practice it in front of the teacher for guidance and correction.
|– Provides a clear model for learners to emulate
– Allows learners to observe correct techniques and approaches
|– Requires time and effort for repeated demonstrations and practice
– Demands skilled teachers who can provide accurate and consistent guidance
|Question and Answer Method
|Teacher poses questions to the class, guiding the responses and summarizing the content.
|– Encourages active participation and critical thinking
– Promotes class engagement and discussion
|– May result in only a few students actively participating while others remain passive
– Difficult to manage time and ensure balanced participation
|Learners and teachers generate ideas together to tackle complex learning tasks.
|– Encourages creative thinking and idea generation
– Promotes collaborative learning and teamwork
|– Requires careful facilitation to manage group dynamics and ensure equal participation
– Can be time-consuming without clear objectives or outcomes
|Expert Panel Method
|Experts share information and experiences on a topic with learners, supplemented by other panelists.
|– Provides in-depth knowledge and diverse perspectives
– Enhances understanding through real-world experiences and insights
|– Requires coordination and availability of knowledgeable experts
– Potential for conflicting information or biased perspectives
|Case Study Method
|Learners analyze and discuss real or hypothetical scenarios to develop problem-solving and decision-making skills.
|– Develops critical thinking and analytical skills
– Encourages application of knowledge to real-world situations
|– Requires well-designed and relevant case studies
– Can be time-consuming to analyze and discuss complex scenarios
|Learners assume assigned roles and act out situations to understand different perspectives and practice skills.
|– Enhances understanding of complex concepts through experiential learning
– Develops communication and interpersonal skills
|– Time-consuming and requires preparation and coordination
– Some learners may feel uncomfortable or lack enthusiasm for role-playing activities
|Cooperative Learning Method
|Learners work in small groups to achieve a common goal, promoting collaboration, communication, and shared responsibility.
|– Promotes teamwork, cooperation, and interpersonal skills
– Encourages active engagement and peer learning
|– Requires careful group formation and management
– Individual accountability may be challenging to ensure
– Potential for conflicts or imbalanced participation
|Learners work on long-term projects to apply and integrate knowledge and skills while addressing real-world problems.
|– Develops critical thinking, problem-solving, and project management skills
– Fosters creativity and independent learning
|– Time-consuming and requires careful planning and monitoring
– Requires resources and support for project implementation and assessment
|Incorporates various technologies (e.g., online platforms, multimedia) to facilitate learning, collaboration, and access to resources.
|– Enhances access to information and resources
– Promotes interactive and engaging learning experiences
|– Requires infrastructure and technical support
– Potential for technical issues or distractions
– May exacerbate inequalities in access to technology
|Experiential Learning Method
|Learners engage in hands-on experiences and reflect on the outcomes to develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
|– Promotes active engagement and deep understanding through personal experiences
– Develops problem-solving and critical thinking skills
|– Requires careful design and scaffolding to ensure effective learning outcomes
– Time-consuming to plan and execute experiential activities
|Flipped Classroom Method
|Learners study instructional materials online before class and use class time for interactive discussions, activities, and clarification.
|– Promotes active learning and deeper understanding through in-class engagement
– Allows for individualized instruction and support
|– Requires reliable access to technology and internet
– Demands careful preparation and organization of online materials and resources
|Learners engage in simulated environments or games that replicate real-world scenarios to develop skills and knowledge.
|– Provides immersive and interactive learning experiences
– Promotes problem-solving and decision-making skills
|– Requires resources and expertise to develop and implement simulations/games
– May be time-consuming to design and integrate into the curriculum
|Mastery Learning Method
|Learners progress at their own pace, demonstrating mastery of content before moving to the next level or topic.
|– Tailors instruction to individual learning needs and pace
– Ensures mastery of content and reduces knowledge gaps
|– Requires careful monitoring and assessment to determine mastery levels
– May be challenging to implement in large classes or with limited resources
|Teacher poses thought-provoking questions and engages learners in a dialogue to stimulate critical thinking and self-reflection.
|– Develops critical thinking, reasoning, and communication skills
– Encourages independent thinking and exploration
|– Requires skilled facilitation to guide the discussion and maintain focus
– Time-consuming for in-depth exploration and reflection
Planning for Teaching
A Teaching Plan is a step-by-step guide for the teaching and learning session.
This guide is prepared by the teacher ahead of teaching.
Importance of a lesson plan:
- ∙ It improves teacher competence because the teacher researches and prepares
- ∙ Its boosts teacher confidence
- ∙ Planning for teaching boasts interest for teaching
- ∙ It is a time management tool
- ∙ It facilities a substitute teacher i.e. another teacher can teach with that prepared plan for teaching.
- ∙ Helps the teacher to evaluate /assess teaching and learning because the plan will be the basis of telling whether teaching and learning has been successful or not
- ∙ Planning for teaching guides the teacher from irrelevancy
Factors to consider when planning for teaching
- Nature or level of the learners– whom am I going to teach? ∙ The teaching objectives-what am I going to teach?
- The teaching method(s)-what appropriate strategy or strategies am I going to use in teaching?
- The teacher’s and learners’ tasks-what will I do to involve my learners in their learning?
- The teaching aids/materials-what do I need to teach/what tools or equipment will I use in teaching?
- The assessment and evaluation methods-how will I know that my learners have achieved the level of ability or competence I want?
- The content meant for teaching-have I researched and reviewed what I am going to teach?
Tools Needed in Planning for Teaching
These are implements that should be used by the teacher in his/her preparation for effective formal teaching.
- Curriculum : Refers to the broad selected learning areas and how they should be taught to the learners by the end of a particular period of study.
Curriculum is determined by the country (MoES for the case of Uganda) but training institutions or schools can modify it by emphasizing or introducing some learning areas.
Therefore curriculum means what a learners is supposed to learn by the end of a particular period of study. Curriculum determines the quality and character of the learning product. What we teach determines the quantity of citizens.
Syllabus : A Syllabus is a written outline of the content from the learning areas that should be covered by the end of a particular period of study. When an attempt is made to specifically list what should be taught by the end of a particular period of study the syllabus has been made.
The Syllabus is sometimes known as the Course Outline and it is a contract between the teacher and the learners about what should be learnt.
Scheme of Work : The Scheme of Work is a roadmap showing content to be covered in each different portion of the period of study, indicating the learning outcome of expected from each instruction/lesson. A Lesson Plan is got from the scheme of work.
The scheme of work guides the teachers in a particular portion of the period of study.
Lesson Plan : A Teaching Plan is a step-by-step guide showing how the teaching will be conducted in a particular session. The Teaching Plan must show the: desired learning outcomes, activities of the teacher and learners in the instruction process and how learning will be measured. A lesson plan guides the teacher only in a particular session or lesson.