Teaching and Learning Process
Introduction to Teaching Methodology
Teaching is a process of facilitating or enabling learning.
In teaching, all avenues should be explored to achieve the intention of teaching and learning/teaching and learning objective.
Learning is a process of acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes.
After learning, one’s ability/performance, values and behavior are expected to change. The learners should be helped to undergo or go through the following mental processes for effective learning:
- Perceiving information: Taking-in information through senses
- Processing information: Relating perceived information with reality/relating information with what you know
- Attention: Preparing the mind to concentrate so as to receive and process information
- Thinking: Using new information to come up with new ideas
- Memorizing: Remembering newly acquired information. Learning is more effective when a learner is making notes. One writer said “one stroke of a pen is stronger than the strongest memory”.
- Organizing: Categorizing information they have received
Teaching and learning take place at the same time but learning is the ultimate goal of the teacher and the learner.
A successful teaching and learning process will enable learners to acquire:
∙ Skills/Ability to do what you know
- ∙ Attitude Change/Love or hate after learning
Education is a broader discipline/profession that deals with all activities that promote effective teaching and learning so as to produce successful and competent persons in society.
Teaching Methodology refers to the procedures that teachers use when conducting the teaching and learning process.
This involves the methods, steps, principles, practices and activities that should be part and parcel of the teaching and learning process.
In the healthcare profession, teaching methodology and the principles of teaching and learning are vital in many ways especially:
- ∙ When conducting CMEs
- ∙ When mentoring health training students and young staff
- ∙ When providing health education sessions
- ∙ When guiding and counseling patients
- ∙ When teaching and facilitating health courses
Justification/Relevance of Teaching Methodology to a Nurse
- Qualified nurses, even without tutor training, often serve as the primary teachers for student nurses. Therefore, understanding teaching methodology is crucial in the nursing curriculum.
- Nurses frequently take on the role of educators, guiding and mentoring student nurses. A solid understanding of teaching methodology is essential for effective instruction and shaping the future generation of nurses.
- Teaching has become an integral part of nurses’ routines, including continuous professional development, classroom teaching, and clinical teaching in wards.
- Nurses are increasingly involved in educational activities, such as conducting CPD sessions, delivering classroom teachings, and providing clinical instruction. Having a sound knowledge of teaching methodology allows nurses to deliver effective education in these settings.
- Nurses play a critical role in providing health education.
- Nurses are responsible for imparting health-related knowledge to individuals, families, and communities. Understanding teaching methodology equips nurses with the necessary skills to effectively communicate health information and empower others to make informed decisions about their well-being.
- Nurses often engage in media platforms (radio, TV, etc.) to provide educational content.
- Nurses are frequently sought after to share their expertise through media engagements. By understanding teaching methodology, nurses can effectively communicate complex health topics to a wider audience in a clear and accessible manner.
- Teaching methodology helps nurses comprehend curriculum planning, design, review, implementation, change, and evaluation.
- Familiarity with teaching methodology allows nurses to actively participate in the development and improvement of nursing curricula. This includes planning effective teaching strategies, implementing changes when necessary, and evaluating the outcomes of the curriculum.
- Teaching methodology helps nurses appreciate and utilize advanced educational technology.
- As educational technology continues to advance, nurses need to be adept at integrating technology into their teaching practices. Teaching methodology provides the foundation for utilizing educational technology effectively and enhancing the learning experience.
- Teaching methodology enables nurses to develop a systematic approach to writing schemes of work and lesson plans.
- Well-structured schemes of work and lesson plans are essential for organized and effective teaching. Teaching methodology equips nurses with the skills to plan and deliver educational content in a systematic and logical manner.
- Nurses need to learn and apply various teaching methods, utilize teaching aids, and write clear objectives.
- Different learners respond to different teaching methods, and nurses must be proficient in utilizing various techniques to cater to diverse learning styles. Teaching methodology provides the knowledge and skills to select appropriate teaching methods, utilize teaching aids effectively, and write clear and measurable objectives.
- Nurses need to learn how to write notes guided by objectives.
- Documentation is an integral part of nursing practice, and nurses often write notes and reports to communicate important information. Understanding teaching methodology assists nurses in writing clear and concise notes that align with the objectives of the teaching or training session.
Differences between Teaching and Training.
|The imparting of knowledge and concepts
|The practical sharing of skills to improve the learner’s performance
|Takes place in a classroom environment
|Takes place in the work environment or sports field
|Teachers are trained to teach at training colleges
|Trainers are often mentors in the workplace who have the expertise to offer on-the-job training
|Gives pupils new knowledge
|Adds skills onto existing knowledge
|Broader in its focus
|Focuses on specific skills
|Teachers give reports and feedback to learners
|Trainers are given feedback from the trainees to improve their performance
The Teaching and Learning Process
The Teaching and Learning Process refers to phases of teaching i.e. steps taken to achieve effective teaching and learning. Sometimes it is referred to as The Instruction Process.
- Planning for teaching:
- Mind about the nature or level of the learners- whom am I going to teach?
- Prepare teaching objectives-what am I going to teach? ∙ Prepare the teaching method(s)-what appropriate strategy or strategies am I going to use in teaching?
- Prepare the teacher’s and learners’ tasks-what will I do to involve my learners in their learning?
- Prepare teaching aids/materials-what do I need to teach/what tools or equipment will I use in teaching?
- Prepare the assessment and evaluation methods-how will I know that my learners have achieved the level of ability or competence I want?
- Research and review the content meant for teaching-am I confident of what I am going to teach?
Remember: failing to prepare for teaching you are preparing to fail teaching
2. Implementation of teaching (active phase):
- Creating rapport
- Introducing teaching/learning objectives
- Assessing learners’ prior knowledge
- Giving content and major ideas of the session,
- Implementing the teaching methods.
- Assessment and Evaluation of teaching:
Measure the level of acquired skills, attitudes or knowledge (determine the level of achievement of the objectives of teaching and learning) by:
- ∙ Ask one of the learners to summarize
- ∙ Ask important questions about what has been taught
- ∙ Administer the assessment tool/test
- ∙ Score/mark the learners
- ∙ Giving feedback about performance of the learners
- ∙ Determine or decide the direction to take basing on their performance
Principles of Teaching and Learning
These are guidelines that make teaching or learning effective or successful.
- Rapport: Establishing Rapport (cooperation with the learner).This should be started by a teacher in every learning session.
- Objectives: Give expectations of learners/articulate learning objectives i.e. what you want them to achieve at the end of the lesson.
- Diversity: Respect diversity of ideas i.e. respect the fact that people see things differently and therefore every idea and opinion deserves respect.
- Participation: Encourage and ensure active learning i.e. try to involve all the learners let them say or do something about their learning.
- Feedback: Give prompt feedback after every attempt of the learner
- Abilities: Realize/appreciate or respect the difference in learners abilities i.e. know that all people can’t be equal in talent, abilities and skills.
- Justice i.e. treat learners equally
- Plan: Planning for teaching and learning process i.e. organize plan for content and methods that you will use to deliver.
- Evaluate: Evaluation of teaching and learning i.e. assess to see whether learners have learnt for example: asks learners what has been learnt, tell leaners to summarize or recap, ask learners to demonstrate.
Characteristics of Learning
- Learning is purposeful: Effective instructors find ways to relate new learning to student goals, ensuring that the learning process aligns with the desired outcomes.
- Learning is a result of experience: Students can only learn from personal experiences. They acquire knowledge and skills through direct engagement and interaction with their environment.
- Learning is an active process: Learning requires active engagement and participation. It involves the individual’s ability to adjust and adapt to new situations, integrating new information with existing knowledge.
- Learning is growth: Learning is intertwined with personal growth and development. Through the process of living and learning, individuals grow intellectually, emotionally, and socially.
- Learning is both individual and social: While learning is primarily an individual activity, it is influenced by social interactions and group activities. Peers, teachers, and the overall learning environment can consciously or unconsciously impact the learning process.
- Learning is adjustment: Learning enables individuals to adapt and adjust themselves to new experiences, challenges, and situations. It involves the acquisition of skills and knowledge that aid in navigating and coping with the changing environment.
- Learning is a product of the environment: The physical, social, intellectual, and emotional development of an individual is shaped and molded by the objects and individuals present in the environment. The environment provides the context for learning to occur.
- Learning affects the conduct of learners: Learning influences learners’ behavior, attitudes, and actions. It can lead to changes in conduct and the application of knowledge and skills in practical situations.
- Learning is transferable: Knowledge and skills acquired in one context can be applied and have an impact in other contexts. Learning is not limited to a specific setting but can be transferred and used across various domains.
- Learning is self-active: Learning requires self-activity and personal engagement. Individuals must take an active role in their learning process, developing their own habits and strategies for acquiring knowledge and skills. Learning is a personal and individualized process.
Teaching and Learning Objectives
A Teaching and Learning Objective is a statement showing or underlining the performance or ability to be demonstrated after instruction.
Importance of Learning/Teaching Objectives
They are important to the Learner and the Teacher
- They guide the learner to focus on what is being learnt
- They enable the learner to do self-assessment of what is being learnt and what has been learnt
- They guide focuses the instructor on what should be taught in a given session.
- They enable the instructor to easily assess leaning among his or her learners.
Characteristic of a Good Teaching/Learning Objective
The teaching/learning objective should be a clear learning outcome. Therefore, It should be,
- Specific: it should be specific, brief and clearly stated.
- Measurable: It should indicate the extent/level of competence to be achieved. Therefore it should be measurable
- Attainable: It should be in line with the learners abilities. Therefore, it should be achievable or attainable by learners
- Realistic: It should be in line with the instruction abilities of the teacher. Therefore it should be realistic for the teacher.
- Time Bound: It should be in line with the time available for instruction. therefore, it should be time bound
Classification of Leaning/Teaching Objectives or Domains
Leaning /teaching objectives are categorized in the domains in order to bring affective learning .Therefore every after successful learning learners must be able to demonstrate or show these three domains or aspects of learning:
- Cognitive domain (Change in Knowledge): The learning outcome should be to enable learners to remember what they have learnt, comprehend/understand what they have learnt, analyze/explain details of what they have learnt. use it to explain other situations and to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of what they have learnt
- Psychomotor domain (Change in Skills): The learning outcome should be to enable learners to do/practice what they have learnt
- Affective domain (Change in Attitudes): The learning outcome should be to enable learners to like or dislike some things or ideas or people or situations or approaches or behaviors
Theories of Learning
Theories of learning are paradigms or models of learning. Therefore, the theories of learning are the widely accepted beliefs by educationists that explain how people learn, what hinders them to learn and what motivates them to learn.
There are four major models or paradigms or theories of learning but each model or theory has various proponents or supporters. These are:
Behaviorism model or theory
Behaviorists believe that Learning is influenced by environment; otherwise individuals naturally are passive towards learning or acquiring knowledge. Therefore, the environment has the duty of stimulating the learners so as to bring out effective learning. The proponents of this theory believe that human beings are born with empty minds (“tabularasa”). Therefore, it is the role of the environment/ teacher/ experience to fill the mind.
The proponents of this theory include:
∙ Ivan Pavlov (classical conditioning) Classical conditioning theory suggest that learners most of the time achieve or succeed after associating what they are learning with a stimulus. Therefore in the environment there must be something to remind the learner his/her role in learning. In his experiment Pavlov used a bell and food in order to cause salvation in a dog. When food and a bell were paired always the dog salivated. After several days the bell without food could cause salivation.
The role of the teacher is to identify a certain stimulus which can stimulate a learner to learn but this must be done frequently to keep the learner alert. The bell is what the teacher does, the food is the knowledge and salivation is learning by students. (Bell + food) = SALIVATION.
In his experiment when he did not pair the bell with the food several times, the dog stopped salivation. When he paired the bell and the food again for several days, the dog salivated. Salivating again is called spontaneous recovery. Therefore the teachers should be creative and teach while demonstrating some practices which can induce learning. However, it is more effective to introduce and withdraw them.
∙ Fredrick Skinner (Operant conditioning theory) the theory of operant conditioning suggests that reinforcement (rewarding, withdrawing reward, punishment and withdrawing punishment) influences learning or change of behavior. Therefore learning or change of behavior is more successful if the teacher reinforces the learner either during the teaching or after the learner has achieved learning/ good performance/good behavior. This means that when the learner learns the desired or expresses desirable behavior, rewarding or withdrawing punishment helps to improve, sustain or maintain the good performance. However, with negative performance, punishment and withdrawing reward can cause or revive good performance.
∙ Albert Bandura (Social learning theory) this theory suggests that individuals most of the time learn or change behavior after observing or imitating others. Therefore learning takes place from what others in the environment do. A teacher and other stakeholders in teaching should provide good examples because they are models to the learners. Learners learn fast and effectively what they have admired from others.
In summary of the first theory,
- Behaviorism Model or Theory:
Proponents: Ivan Pavlov, Fredrick Skinner, Albert Bandura
Belief: Learning is influenced by the environment, and individuals are naturally passive towards learning. The role of the environment, teacher, and experience is to stimulate effective learning. Behaviorists emphasize conditioning, reinforcement, and observation as key factors in learning.
- Cognitivist theory or model of learning
Cognition refers to the mental functioning/processing of an individual such as thinking, perceiving, memory, judgment and problem solving. Therefore cognitive ability means one’s mental ability. The cognitive model of learning suggest learning is determined by the mental abilities within the learner hence effective learning is the outcome of mental activities and abilities like thinking, decision making, judgment, memory etc
Cognitivists therefore conclude that learning is not accidental the learner must be a processor and with mental abilities. The proponents of cognitivism include:
∙ Bernard Weiner (Attribution theory). According to Weiner learning is caused by factors within the learner such as effort of the learner, determination and the level of interest.
∙ Sweller (cognitive load theory). He suggests that learning is determined by the amount and the complexity of knowledge and skills taught. Therefore the teachers should teach heavy and complex knowledge and skills patiently by breaking into small and manageable bits.
∙ Regeluth (elaborate theory of Learning). This theory suggests that learning is influenced by the quality of sequence or organization of the content. Therefore teachers should teach leaners beginning with simple content as they move to the complex. Language used should also be clear such that there is flow of understanding.
∙ Merrill (component display theory). This theory suggests that learning is determined by the quality of teaching or presentation. Therefore teachers should watch their teaching and presentation methods. They should know when to use experiments, demonstrations, verbal illustrations, field work visits, visual aids like charts.
In summary of the second model,
- Cognitivist Theory or Model:
Proponents: Bernard Weiner, Sweller, Regeluth, Merrill
Belief: Learning is determined by mental abilities and activities such as thinking, memory, judgment, and problem-solving. Cognitivists emphasize the importance of cognitive processes and the organization and presentation of information for effective learning.
- Constructivism model of learning
This theory suggests that knowledge and skills are constructed or progressively built so as to bring final learning. Therefore learning is facilitated by prior information about what is currently learnt. Therefore previous information within the learner is a base/foundation of effective learning. The proponents of this theory include:
∙ Brunner (discovery learning theory). According to this theory, learning is effective where learners discover facts and relationships of knowledge and skills themselves. Brunner therefore asserts that learners are likely to remember and enjoy learning when they discover it themselves. The role of the teacher is to outline the steps or key remarks and but keep watching the learners’ progress.
The Advantages of discovery learning include:
- It is interesting for learners
- The learner gets opportunity to learn other things or facts which were not intended
- It discourages laziness among learners
- It helps a teacher to learn more from his/her students’ discoveries It encourages permanency of learning i.e. What has been learnt is not easily forgotten
- It can help a teacher to assess the potential or abilities of the learners.
- However, this theory has the following disadvantages:-
- It promotes laziness among teachers
- It leads to cognitive overload i.e. Learners are likely to learn many things which are not necessary during the process of discovery.
- There is room for misconception (misunderstanding) some concepts, principles, theories, ideas.
- It is tiresome to learners
- It requires enough learning resources
∙ Vigotsky (Social development theory). This theory states that learning is effective when there are more interactions and access between the source of learning and the learner. The source of learning here includes the teacher, text books, notes, computer, internet, trials, mentor or coach, fellow learners. Therefore, since teachers are most important sources of information, they should allow and encourage interaction with their learners at all times.
In summary of the third theory,
- Constructivism Model of Learning:
Proponents: Bruner, Vigotsky
Belief: Knowledge and skills are constructed or built progressively, and prior information forms the foundation for effective learning. Constructivists emphasize discovery learning, where learners actively discover facts and relationships. Interaction and access to various sources of learning are also crucial for effective learning.
Humanism (motivation) model of learning
Humanists suggests that learning is influenced by the internal derive within the individual. Therefore, learning is effective when the learners are encouraged within themselves to learn. Successful learning is a product of one’s will and a love for learning. Therefore, teachers should plant seeds of interest or motivation in the thoughts of the learners to achieve successful learning. This can be done by: identifying the benefits of the content. Identifying successful people who have specialized or excelled in content you are teaching. These can be from the community or outside. The proponents of motivational theory of learning include:
∙ Keller (The RACS theory of learning) According to Keller, learning is more successful if four conditions in the learner are fulfilled. These conditions are:
- if the knowledge and skills taught are seen relevant by the learner,
- if the learner is attentive,
- if the learner is confident to learn,
- if the knowledge and skills taught are satisfying or are enjoyable to the learner.
Therefore, teachers should make learners attentive before and during teaching, they should show relevance of what they are teaching to the learners, they should boost the confidence of the learner and they should teach in a way that makes learners enjoy.
∙ Maslow (hierarchy of needs theory). Maslow suggests that day to day performance among individuals is stimulated by the need to achieve what they don’t have. Therefore, this theory suggests that effective learning takes place when learners have realized that the teacher is giving them important missing knowledge and skills. Hence, learning is motivated by the need to learn new ideas. Teachers should avoid repeating what learners know but identify what learners don’t know and concentrate on it more than what they know.
In summary of the fourth modal,
- Humanism (Motivation) Model of Learning:
Proponents: Keller, Maslow
Belief: Learning is influenced by internal motivation and the individual’s desire to learn. Humanists emphasize the importance of intrinsic motivation, personal interest, and the satisfaction derived from learning. Teachers play a role in fostering motivation and creating a positive learning environment.
Factors that affect Learning
- Psychological factors within the learner. And these include: Emotions like (fear, guilt, shame, anger, depression, worry, and anxiety), Motivation/interest in learning and Readiness
- Physiological factors of the learner. That is: health of the learner, functioning of the body parts that are important in perceiving information. Therefore, the physical x-tics of the learner’s body and the physical health itself can determine the level of learning.
- Environmental factors (Ecological factors).Social surroundings includes smell, noise, location (class), nature of classmates, and order of learning environment. Natural surroundings include temperature, weather, and climate.
- Teaching methodology .i.e. how is the teacher teaching? E.g. Observation, role play, experimenting and demonstration. Teachers should not think about effective methods of learning when a learner hears, he/she forgets. When the leaner sees, he/she believes. When the learner does, he/she understands. Therefore, Teachers should explain, illustrate and involve learners in demonstrating what they have learnt. Teachers should not dictate the learning but they should participate in it.
- Social –Economic status of the learner. Learners from improved social economic background have the potential to enjoy or use a wide range of learning resources/materials such as text books ,books ,seminars, study tours ,computers, mathematical sets, calculators, dictionary e.t.c. However, those who lack such are likely to find difficulty in learning compared to those who enjoy movement of resources.
- Mental ability of the learner. Those learners with strong mental abilities such as thinking, memory, problem solving, judgment, perception, and learning are likely to learn quickly and properly. While those with mental abilities learning will be difficult for them.
- Personality of the teacher .This includes ability to relax the learners; he/she should be creative when illustrating knowledge .E.g. Use of good examples, good demonstrations, and good learning aids. Should express confidence while teaching, Should be kind and co operative to the learners, Should have the ability to assess the provide a feedback to the learners, Ability to be a model i.e. practice what you teach, ability to be infectious/humorous.
Adult Learning (Andragogy)
Adult learning means getting involved in learning when the learner is mature in age and experience.
Adult learner is a person who gets involved in learning when he/she is mature in age and experience about different aspects of life.
- Adult Learning Theory (Malcolm Knowles, 1968)
The adult Learning Theory is also called Andragogy. This theory states that adults learn differently from children. Therefore, the process, motivators and obstacles of learning among adults are different from those among the children.
The Principles of Teaching Adult Learners (Principles of Adult Learning)
- Involve the learners in all decisions around their learning: when, how, what, for how long, how many times.
- Respect their autonomy/independence: Learners should be in charge of what they are learning. Talk less, allow reflection and seek feedback.
- Learners should be looked at as a resource of learning: They are a reservoir of experience which can facilitate better learning.
- The teaching and learning should focus on improving the current performance of learners: Instruction should yield immediate relevance to the current roles, competences of the learners.
- Teaching and learning should be practical or evidence based: Show them what you are saying or guide them to do what you are saying.
- Flexibility in Teacher-Learner relationships: Accommodate, understand and manage inconveniences from learners since these learners have always responsibilities and challenges out of classroom environment.
- Respect for Learners: Acknowledge that they are mature in age and experience. Appreciate their contributions, attempt.
What are the characteristics of Adult Learners?
- They are self-directed/they want to be independent in their learning
- They have enough knowledge and life experiences
- They have clear goals of learning
- They prefer learning which is immediately relevant to their learning needs
- Relatively slower in learning
- More resistant to change
- More motivated in learning
- They always have multi-level responsibilities: they have a lot to juggle e.g. family, work, friends, recreation
- They wish to be respected