Teaching – Learning Process
Teaching – Learning Process Learning Outcomes.
- Education – is a process through which an individual attains knowledge, skills, attitudes and other abilities required for leading a productive life in the society
- Teaching: deliberate intervention that involves planning and implementation of instructional activities in order to bring about desired behavioral changes in students.
- Learning – is the process of acquiring new knowledge skills and attitudes which enable students to do something that they could not do before OR this is a change in an individual’s behavior as a result of receiving instructions.
- Learning is brought about through teaching. Teaching process is the arrangement of the environment within which the students can interact and study how to learn.
Elements/components of teaching-learning process
- Learner– someone who is going to attain knowledge and skills in order to change behavior
- Teacher– someone who selects and organizes teaching-learning process
- Learning objectives– intended learning outcomes which can be observed or measured.
- Sequence of stimulus-response stimulation (teaching) -here the teacher starts to direct learning in order to ensure enhancement of student’s cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (skills) and affective (attitude ) abilities.
- Reinforcement of the behavior-there should be an activity which increases the likelihood that some event will occur again. It can involve continuous practice of what has been taught.
- Monitoring, assessment and evaluation-it involves finding out whether the set objectives were achieved.
Qualities of a good teacher
- Enthusiastic with content to be taught.
- Good communicator
- Active listener
- Time manager
- Honesty/ trustworthy
- Good teaching ethics
- Good leader- lead and guide learners
- Team work
- Creative /innovative
The Teaching and Learning Process refers to phases of teaching i.e. steps taken to achieve effective teaching and learning. Sometimes it is referred to as The Instruction Process.
- Planning for teaching:
- Mind about the nature or level of the learners- whom am I going to teach?
- Prepare teaching objectives-what am I going to teach? ∙ Prepare the teaching method(s)-what appropriate strategy or strategies am I going to use in teaching?
- Prepare the teacher’s and learners’ tasks-what will I do to involve my learners in their learning?
- Prepare teaching aids/materials-what do I need to teach/what tools or equipment will I use in teaching?
- Prepare the assessment and evaluation methods-how will I know that my learners have achieved the level of ability or competence I want?
- Research and review the content meant for teaching-am I confident of what I am going to teach?
Remember: failing to prepare for teaching you are preparing to fail teaching
2. Implementation of teaching (active phase):
- Creating rapport
- Introducing teaching/learning objectives
- Assessing learners’ prior knowledge
- Giving content and major ideas of the session,
- Implementing the teaching methods.
- Assessment and Evaluation of teaching:
Measure the level of acquired skills, attitudes or knowledge (determine the level of achievement of the objectives of teaching and learning) by:
- ∙ Ask one of the learners to summarize
- ∙ Ask important questions about what has been taught
- ∙ Administer the assessment tool/test
- ∙ Score/mark the learners
- ∙ Giving feedback about performance of the learners
- ∙ Determine or decide the direction to take basing on their performance
THE SIX MAJOR TASKS OF A TEACHER
- Decide what students should learn (prepare objectives / tasks)
- Put the contents in a suitable sequence
- Allocate amount of time and different learning activities.
- Select learning activities and teaching methods
- Choose assessment procedures
- Identify resources needed
- Inform the student about the plan
- Tell, explain, advise
- Help students to exchange ideas. Students can still learn in your absence
- Provide students’ thinking
- Use varied teaching techniques, Be creative
- Detect whether students understand.
- Prepare, select or adapt educational materials e.g. handouts, exercises, reference books etc.
- Arrange learning experiences, especially opportunities to practice skills (visit the wards, Field visit, attachments to clinical areas & projects etc.)
- Arrange aceess to materials (Such as patients, learning models, libraries, audio visual programs etc)
- Show students that you care.
- Listen and attempt to understand
- Help students to identify their options and to make their decisions
- Provide advice and information that helps students.
- Design an assessment that measures how much students have learnt
- Use the assessment to guide students learning
- Use the assessment to give feedback that modifies teaching.
- Use the assessment to decide whether students are competent to provide health care.
- Encourage students to use self -assessment and peer-assessment.
- Know the subject matter that is taught and where to find relevant information
- Know the way in which health care is provided locally.
- Set an example as a continuous learner.
Types of learning
Learning involves either physical or mental activities. There are different types of learning which could be classified as:
- Depending on the way of acquiring knowledge
- Formal learning– it occurs in organized or structured form like school or workplace
- Informal learning-this is learning that occurs away from structured, formal environment. It happens through self-directed learning or experience like observing,
- Non-formal learning– it includes various structured learning situation which do not have a curriculum or syllabus e.g swimming, driving, scouting sessions
- Individual learning- involves self directed training and instructions
- Group learning– co-operative learning involving groups of people
Roles of a learner
- Attending classes on time
- Completing all assignments
- Active participation in class and all school activities
- Revision or reading on regular basis
- Respecting teachers and colleagues
- Plan their time
- Give feedback to teachers
- Maintain discipline in the class
- Maintain environment clean and keep school property in good condition
- Abide to school rules and regulation
Phases of Learning
- Motivation phase– the learner must be motivated to learn by expectation that learning will be rewarding. Each learner has their motives and needs in life to achieve.
- Apprehending phase– learner stands or pay attention if learning has to take place. It involves understanding or perceiving what is taught.
- Acquisition phase – while learner is paying attention, there is attainment of new information or behaviour.
- Retention phase– newly acquired information must be transferred from short term to long term memory.
- Recall phase – recall previously learned information; to learn to gain access to what has been learned is a critical phase in learning.
- Generalization phase – transfer of information to new situations allows application of the learned information in the context in which it was learned.
- Feedback phase – students must receive feedback on their performance after assessment.
WAYS TEACHERS CAN USE TO HELP STUDENT LEARN (ROLES)
- Individualize: Allow for individual differences and abilities.
- Accept all students as they are, and then start to do a good work in them.
- Consider students as individuals, engaged each in learning on their own.
- Vary your teaching.
- Try to make sure that each student gets what he / she needs.
- Students learn by doing these activities.
- Tell students how well they are doing things,
- What was done poorly and how they could have done better in order to correct their mistakes.
4. Also encourage students to provide their own feedback
- Like, how best they need to learn, check their own work for mistakes etc.
- Help students to make sense of what they are learning by showing how it is relevant to them
- Provide plenty of practice and repetition of what they learn
- Don’t let your students struggle to figure out what is expected of them.
- Reassure students that they can do well in your course, and tell them exactly what they must do to succeed
- An instructor’s enthusiasım is a crucial factor in student motivation. If you become bored or apathetic, students will too.
- From easy to difficult
- From what they know to what they don’t know
- – Use illustrations
- Variety reawakens students’ involvement in the course and their motivation.
- Break the routine by incorporating a variety of teaching activities and methods in your course: ward teaching, role playing, debates, brainstorming, discussion, demonstrations, case studies, audiovisual presentations, or small group work.
- If you base your tests on memorizing details, students will focus on memorizing facts.
- If your tests stress the synthesis and evaluation of information, students will be motivated to practice those skills when they study.
- The threat of low grades may prompt some students to work hard, but other students may resort to academic dishonesty, excuses for late work, and other counterproductive behavior.
- Make your teaching interesting, lively, relevant and rewarding.