References and Appendices



Appendices refer to the different supporting documents that contain any additional information needed to enable professionals to follow your research procedures and data analysis.

An appendix is a page that contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem or it is information that is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper.

Appendices appear just after the reference list

In a proposal book, reference list appears immediately after chapter three
(methodology) and in the report reference list appears after chapter five.

Each appendix must be referred to by name e.g (Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C, etc.) in the text of the paper

To refer to the Appendix within your text, write, (see Appendix A) at the end of the sentence in parentheses. Example:

In addition to the limitations of email, Dansons et al. (2012) reviewed studies that focused on international bank employees and college students (see Appendix B for demographic information).
Examples of information that can be presented in appendices
  • Consent form
  • Questionnaires or checklists used for data collection.
  • Tables referred to in the text but not included in order to keep the report short; e.g Morgan’s table for sample size determination
  • Lists of hospitals, districts, villages etc. that participated in the study
  • Maps of study area
  • Research budget
  • Work schedule or time table that you followed during the research process
  • Letters of authorization (must be signed and stamped by an authorized official).

These appendices should be labeled; e.g



  • Appendix I: Consent Form
  • Appendix II: Research Work Plan
  • Appendix III: Estimated Research Budget
  • Appendix IV: Questionnaire for Participants
  • Appendix V: Sample Size Determination


Consent form is the document that shows that the informed consent process has taken place.

Informed consent is the permission granted in the knowledge of the possible consequences, given by the respondent to the researcher for participating in the study (with full knowledge of possible risks and benefits).


In research autonomy is protected by ensuring that the patient consents

  • Any consent to participate in the study must be informed.
  • Constitutionally, any person 18 years and above is legible to formal consent.
  • For persons below 18 (principally below 15yrs), they will ascent to agree to participate and the next of kin or institutional authority will consent as key witness.
  • This involves explaining clearly to the prospective participant about your study to ensure the participant understands what your research is all about.
  • The participant will then be allowed to make a free choice whether or not to participate in your study.
  • There must be no coercion of any sort.
Key features of a consent form
  • Statement of introduction. Here you introduce yourself to the participant; your names, address and profession.
  • Purpose of the study– state your topic and justify why you are studying that topic.
  • Benefits or risks of participating (if any- be honest)
  • Statement assuring participant about ethical considerations(confidentiality of information, freedom to withdraw from the study at any time, etc).
  • Statement of consent. Here the participant acknowledges having been explained to and having understood clearly thus accepts to participate in the study. This participant then signs this document(does not put his name).
  1. 🌐 Purpose of the Research: Clear, concise explanation of the research purpose, including the study name. 
  2. 🎯📋 Purpose of the Study: A concise statement outlining the study’s objectives.
  3. ⚠️ Benefits: Description of procedure risks, side effects, or discomfort, along with potential benefits.
  4. 😓❌ Potential Risks: Identification and explanation of any potential risks involved.
  5. ☑️ Voluntary Participation: Statement that participation is voluntary, with the freedom to withdraw without penalty.
  6. Participant Questions: Statement allowing participants to ask questions about the study.
  7. 🤐 Confidentiality Protection: Description of measures to protect participant confidentiality.
  8. 📂🔒 Confidentiality Assurance: Reassurance regarding the confidentiality of participant information.
  9. 📜 Consent Form Copy: Assurance that the participant will receive a copy of the signed and dated consent form.
  10. 🕵️ Researchers Information: Inclusion of investigator(s) names and contact details.
  11. 🖋️ Consent Statement: Inclusion of a “statement of consent” with participant name and signature.
  12. 📚🔍 Study Title: The official title of the research study.
  13. 🧪🔍 Research Procedures: Overview of the specific procedures involved in the research.
  14. 📃✍ Informed Consent Statement: A statement emphasizing the importance of informed consent.
  15. 📞📧 Contact Information: Information on how participants can contact the researchers.
  16. 📜👤 Participant Rights: Explanation of the rights participants have during and after the study.
  17. ✍📃 Signature Lines: Designated spaces for participant and researcher signatures.
  18. 🗓📆 Date: Space for indicating the date when the consent form is signed.


A research budget is a line item (tabular) representation of the expenses associated with the proposal project.

The Budget Justification contains more in-depth detail of the costs behind the line items, and sometimes explains the use of the funds where not evident. Also called explanatory notes.

Cost estimates need to be as accurate as possible to cover the expenses proposed in the project. Reviewers will note both over- and under-estimations.

The budget should be developed with your departmental research administrator, in consultation with the appropriate project representative as needed. Sponsors customarily specify how budgets should be presented and what costs are allowable.

  The overview given here is for preliminary guidance only.


Ruled papers1 ream17,000/=17,000/=
Duplicating paper2 reams15,000/=30,000/=
File folders41,000/=4,000/=
Photocopying52 pages100/=5,200/=
Typing and printing52 pages1,000/=52,000/=
Binding5 copies5,000/=25,000/=
Typing and printing52 pages1,000/=52,000/=
Photocopying52 pages100/=5,200/=
Binding5 copies5,000/=25,000/=


A study timetable is an easy, inexpensive tool that can help you get control over your study time.

It will give you perspective on what you need to accomplish and the time you have to do it in.

If you want to get organized and feel motivated to get your work done to the best of your potential, try putting together a personalized study timetable.

In research, it is referred to as a work plan

The Gantt Chart

What is a Gantt Chart?

The Gantt Chart is a planning tool that shows graphically the order in which various tasks must be implemented (done) and the duration of each activity.

Spread the love

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Contact us to get permission to Copy

We encourage getting a pen and taking notes,

that way, the website will be useful.

Scroll to Top