Report Writing

Report Writing

Report Writing

Report refers to a document that answers the problem your had set to

  • It provides evidence about the whole study.
  • The researcher is required to adequately relate the findings to the research objectives.
  • This process involves the presentation of data from the research findings.
  • Usually a research report is presented in a report for as opposed to the proposal writing where we use the future tense.

Main Components of a Research Report

1. Preliminary Pages: Pages before Chapter One numbered in Roman Numerals.


  • Title (2 title pages)
  • Abstract
  • Copyright
  • Authorization
  • Approval
  • Declaration
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • Definition of Key Terms
  • List of Abbreviations

2. Main Body:

  • untickedChapter One
  • unticked

    Chapter Two

  • unticked

    Chapter Three



    Chapter Four

  • unticked

    Chapter Five

3. References:

  • Affipunguh PK, Laar AS.(2016) Assessment of Women in Northern Ghana: a cross- sectional study. Int J Sci Rep DOI:
  • Asp G., et. al. (2014). Associations between Mass Media Exposure in Southwestern Uganda: a Community-Based Survey. Global health action, 7(1), 22904.
  • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, (2020) Goalkeepers Report. Data from IHME. hups:l/ MMR

4. Appendices:

  • Appendix I: Consent Form
  • Appendix II: Questionnaire
  • Appendix III: Introductory Letter
  • Appendix IV: Approval Letter
  • Appendix V: Proposal Approval Form
  • Appendix VI: Notice of Research Study Topic and Supervisor
  • Appendix VII: Map of STUDY AREA
  • Appendix VIII: Map of DISTRICT


Title Page:

  • Proposal: has one title page.
  • Report: two title pages


  • Proposal: written in the future tense since the research has not been conducted yet.
  • Report: written in the past tense as it presents findings after the research has been completed.

Preliminary Pages:

  • Declaration:

  • Approval:

  • Abstract:

  • Proposal: No abstract
  • Report: Summarizes the completed research, including objectives, methods, results, and conclusions.
  • Copyright:

  • Proposal: not applicable as the work is yet to be completed.
  • Report: Reflects the copyright status of the completed work.
  • Authorization Page:

  • Proposal: Not applicable.
  • Report: Contains authorizations and approvals based on the completed work.
  • Dedication:

  • Proposal: Not applicable
  • Report: Can include a dedication to acknowledge individuals or entities.
  • Acknowledgment:

  • Proposal: Not applicable.
  • Report: Acknowledges actual support received during the research.
  • Table of Contents:

  • List of Abbreviations:

  • Definition of Key Terms:

  • List of Tables and Figures:

  • Proposal: Not applicable.
  • Report: Lists actual tables and figures used in the completed work.

Main Body:

  • Proposal (Chapters 1-3):

  • Chapter 1 (Introduction): Sets the stage for the proposed research.
  • Chapter 2 (Literature Review): Summarizes existing research relevant to the proposed study.
  • Chapter 3 (Research Methodology): Details the planned research approach.
  • Report (Chapters 1-5):
  • Chapter 1 (Introduction): Background, objectives, and significance.
  • Chapter 2 (Literature Review): Comprehensive review of existing literature.
  • Chapter 3 (Research Methodology): Detailed methodology based on what was actually done.
  • Chapter 4 (Results): Presentation of research findings.
  • Chapter 5 (Discussion): Interpretation, analysis, and implications.


  • Proposal: May include research tools, budget, and workplan for planning purposes.
  • Report: omits budget and workplan (already planned), includes actual research tools.

Additional Pages:

  • Report: May include an introductory letter to provide context for the completed work.

Dissemination of research findings

• Besides completion of a research report, one needs to disseminate
the findings

• Dissemination refers to the strategies used by the researcher to make
those people who are concerned about your findings of those with
interest in your findings get to know about your study.

Strategies for dissemination of research findings
 These include;

  •  Oral presentations through CMEs
    • Poster presentations
    • Seminars
    • Publications
    • Conferences
    • Magazines
    • Newspapers etc

Chapter four

• This is the results section of your research report
• It involves presentation of data and statistical forms

• Statistical data refers to all those numerical descriptions of events,
things or objects. They take the form of counting or measurements eg
sex and age distribution of children with diarrheal diseases, clinically
diagnosed cases of malaria
• Note that results are presented according to the objectives of the

Statistical methods

• These are the different means of organizing, analyzing and
interpreting numerical data for better understanding of a
phenomenon so as to allow us make good discisions/conclusions
• Statistical methods can be;
• Descriptive
• Analytical

Descriptive and analytical statistics

• Descriptive statistics involves organization, presentation and
summarization of data
• Analytical statistics involves organization, presentation,
summarization and finding an association between variables.

Statistical variable

• Refers to any measurable characteristic that assumes a different value
among individuals or subjects eg temperature, blood pressure, age,
weight etc

• Statistical variables can be;

  • Quantitative variable
  • Qualitative variable

• Quantitative variables can be measured in the form of numbers as
opposed to names or descriptions of events
• Qualitative varaibles can not be measured in the form of numbers but
rather names age degree of pain like moderate, severe pain; tribe like
Ganda, nyankole etc

Presentation of data

• Data presentation is important in any research study
• It helps to summarize all the junk raw data into information that can
easily be read an appreciated by other readers of your work
• Data can be presented in the form of tables, figures ie graph, pie
chart, line graph, histograms etc
• These form visual aids that helps the reader to quickly understand the


• These help to summarize and give picture of how big, shape and
distribution of the study findings
These can be presented as;

  • Frequency distribution tables
  • Grouped Frequency distribution tables

For a table to be clearly translated, it must be properly constructed

How to construct a table

• Ensure the table has an appropriate tittle
• Tittle should be above the table
• Every table must be numbered to facilitate easy referencing
• Should fit on one page
• Column and row headings should be brief and clear
• Units of headings should be clearly indicated

Figures(graphs, charts)

• These help to give a valuable supplement to the statistical analysis
• They help to show the trends of distribution
• When constructing a figure, follow the same guidelines for a table but
the heading of a figure is usually placed below the figure

Chapter five

This section of the research report deals with discussions of the
findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study findings
In the recommending sections you also highlight the nursing
implications of the study findings
Note that discussions are done according to your study objectives

Key points in discussion of results

  • Discussion must be based on the major findings of your study.
  • Findings of your study must be related to findings of other previously done studies ie relate your findings to your literature review, are the findings in agreement or they dis agree?
  • If your crucial findings do not relate to any literate reviewed also acknowledge it.
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