Stakeholders in Disaster Management

Stakeholders in Disaster Management

Stakeholders in Disaster Management

Stakeholders in disaster management are individuals or groups who have an interest in the program and can be influenced by its process or outcomes.

They are those whose interests can be positively or negatively affected by the components or management processes of the disaster.

Types of stakeholders during disaster management:

  1. Communities
  2. Local governments
  3. National governments
  4. Regional institutions
  5. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
  6. Media
  7. Medical institutions
  8. Education, research institutions, and scientific community

Roles and Responsibilities of stakeholders

Community – Individuals and Households:
  1. Stay alert to warning alerts: Keep an eye out for any warning alerts related to disasters and take them seriously.

  2. Understand the factors that contribute to the community’s risks and vulnerabilities and demand responsible action from local elected leaders and businesses: Be aware of the things that make the community more prone to risks and vulnerabilities during disasters. Urge local leaders and businesses to take responsible actions to address these issues.

  3. Foster a culture of resilience where everyone takes responsibility for managing risks: Encourage and promote a culture of resilience within the community, where each person understands their role in managing risks and takes responsibility for it.

  4. Learn what actions to take as individuals, whether at home, work, or in the community, to address risks, and find time for education, training, or other capacity-building activities: Educate yourself about the specific actions you can take to address risks in various settings like your home, workplace, or community. Make an effort to enhance your knowledge through education, training, or other capacity-building opportunities.

  5. Mobilize fellow community members to participate in disaster prevention programs: Encourage and motivate other members of the community to actively engage in programs and initiatives aimed at preventing disasters.

  6. Encourage family, friends, and neighbors to enhance their ability to address risk factors: Promote the idea of improving the capabilities of your family, friends, and neighbors to effectively deal with risk factors associated with disasters.

  7. Take part in local and national capacity development strategic planning efforts, including capacity assessments: Participate in the planning and assessment activities conducted at the local and national levels to enhance the community’s capacity to handle disasters effectively.

  8. Gather resources for disaster programs: Contribute to the collection of resources, such as funds, supplies, or volunteer assistance, to support disaster-related programs and initiatives.

  9. Attend emergency preparedness training: Take advantage of training opportunities focused on emergency preparedness to acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to respond effectively during disasters.

  10. Stay actively engaged in local disaster risk reduction efforts through schools, religious organizations, social networks, professional associations, and other channels: Maintain active involvement in local initiatives aimed at reducing disaster risks. This can be done through schools, religious organizations, social networks, professional associations, and other relevant platforms.

  11. Actively participate in decision-making and the implementation of actions: Engage in the decision-making process related to disaster management and actively contribute to the implementation of actions and measures to mitigate risks and enhance preparedness.

National and Local Governments:
  1. Fund disaster management programs at both national and local levels: Allocate financial resources to support the implementation of disaster management programs and initiatives.

  2. Purchase and install disaster monitoring systems: Acquire and set up systems that can monitor and detect potential disasters to facilitate timely response and mitigation efforts.

  3. Develop or support the development of a national strategy for capacity development in disaster risk reduction: Establish a comprehensive strategy that guides the planning and implementation of capacity development across all stakeholder groups and at all levels.

  4. Increase awareness about disasters in the respective community: Raise awareness among the population about different types of disasters, their potential impacts, and the importance of preparedness and risk reduction measures.

  5. Formulate policies to regulate the environment: Create policies and regulations that aim to manage and regulate the environment in ways that reduce the likelihood and severity of disasters.

  6. During a disaster:

    • Provide food supplies, build shelters, and offer medical services to affected individuals and communities.
    • Fund research related to understanding the occurrence and impacts of disasters.
  7. Coordinate capacity assessment data and information: Gather and organize data and information about the existing capacity and resources to enhance cross-community, subnational, and national awareness of capacity needs and resources.

  8. Establish national standards of operation during disasters: Develop and implement standardized protocols and procedures to ensure effective coordination and response during disasters.

  9. Encourage and empower leadership and staff in disaster risk reduction: Foster an understanding among government leadership and staff about their role in disaster risk reduction and associated capacity needs. Provide mechanisms to address those needs effectively.

  10. Provide guidance, documentation, and doctrine for capacity development efforts: Offer guidance, documentation, and frameworks to support capacity development initiatives at national and subnational levels.

  11. Establish immunization programs to prevent epidemics: Implement programs to vaccinate the population against certain diseases and prevent the outbreak of epidemics during or after disasters.

  12. Emphasize sanitation in high-population communities: Focus on improving sanitation practices and facilities in densely populated areas to reduce health risks and potential disease outbreaks, such as in Katanga and similar regions.

  13. Establish departments dedicated to disaster management: Create specialized departments or agencies responsible for handling disaster-related activities and coordinating response efforts.

  14. Create, improve, or support collaborative platforms: Facilitate platforms and forums where government entities, private sectors, academia, and other stakeholders can work together to promote and invest in innovative, practical, affordable, and localized approaches to disaster risk reduction.

Local and Sub-national Government:
  1. Convene community stakeholders and lead or coordinate local capacity development efforts: Bring together stakeholders from the community and take the lead or facilitate coordination in local capacity development activities.

  2. Perform risk assessments to identify capacity needs: Conduct assessments to evaluate the risks faced by the community and determine the corresponding capacity requirements.

  3. Coordinate and communicate the results of community-wide capacity needs assessments: Coordinate the assessment process and effectively communicate the findings and outcomes to relevant stakeholders within the community.

  4. Support the enabling environment for capacity development: Establish and support the necessary legislative frameworks, policies, procedures, budgeting, and strategic planning to create an environment that facilitates capacity development.

  5. Provide standards, accreditation, technologies, and resources: Offer guidelines, accreditation mechanisms, technologies, and resources that assist in planning, assessment, communication, information sharing, and other programmatic needs related to capacity development.

  6. Integrate capacity development for disaster risk reduction, sustainable development, and climate change adaptation: Incorporate capacity development efforts into various government offices, ensuring that disaster risk reduction, sustainable development, and climate change adaptation are mainstreamed throughout the organization.

  7. Increase awareness of capacity development needs: Raise awareness within the local community about the importance of capacity development and the value of reducing capacity gaps.

  8. Ensure coordination with sub-national and national governments: Align local activities with those at the sub-national and regional levels, liaising with higher levels of government to communicate capacity needs and seek support to address them.

  9. Provide or support training and education programs: Deliver or assist in organizing training and educational initiatives that address capacity needs specific to the local context.

  10. Encourage and empower leadership and staff in disaster risk reduction: Foster an understanding among local government leadership and staff about their role in disaster risk reduction and associated capacity needs. Establish mechanisms to address those needs effectively.

  11. Facilitate community-based capacity development initiatives: Support and facilitate capacity development initiatives and activities led by the community itself.

  12. Conduct monitoring and evaluation of capacity development activities: Regularly monitor and evaluate the progress and effectiveness of capacity development efforts to ensure continuous improvement.

  13. Identify capacity resources in the community: Identify existing capacity resources within the community and engage with relevant stakeholders to further develop or utilize these resources for disaster risk reduction.

  14. Work with citizens and engage with non-governmental and private sector organizations: Collaborate directly with citizens and support engagement through non-governmental and private sector organizations to better understand and address capacity gaps. Encourage investments in disaster risk reduction as an innovative, practical, affordable, and localized pursuit.

  1. Raise awareness, advocate, and motivate society on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR): Use media platforms to increase public awareness about DRR, advocate for preparedness and risk reduction measures, and motivate individuals to take action.

  2. Extend special programs for media staff: Offer specialized training and programs for media professionals to enhance their understanding of disaster management and improve their reporting on DRR-related issues.

  3. Strengthen linkages with other stakeholders to flow information: Establish strong connections and collaborations with other stakeholders involved in disaster management to ensure a smooth flow of accurate and timely information.

  4. Introduce innovative products for risk information: Develop and implement innovative approaches and products to effectively disseminate risk information to the public, using various media channels and technologies.

  5. Collect, analyze, and share information: Gather relevant data and information related to disasters, analyze it, and share accurate and up-to-date information with the public to facilitate informed decision-making and preparedness.

  6. Encourage all groups to provide information to the media: Encourage diverse groups, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, community leaders, and affected individuals, to share their experiences, insights, and information with the media to foster a comprehensive understanding of disaster situations.

  7. Maintain a link to academia: Establish and maintain a connection with academic institutions to access expert insights and research findings related to disaster management. Collaborate with academia to ensure accurate reporting and promotion of evidence-based practices.

Education, Research Institutions, and Scientists:
  1. Raise awareness of capacity development needs: Increase awareness among both internal and external stakeholders within the academic community about the importance of capacity development in disaster management.

  2. Encourage research supporting disaster risk reduction: Encourage faculty members to conduct research that contributes to the knowledge and practice of disaster risk reduction.

  3. Provide relevant curriculum and courses: Offer curriculum and courses that equip the next generation of experts in disaster risk reduction with the necessary skills. Ensure that the skills taught align with the skills required in the field.

  4. Expand the disaster risk reduction curriculum: Incorporate disaster risk reduction topics beyond traditional courses, such as finance, financial risk management, development, planning, public policy, public health, and other relevant disciplines.

  5. Support the identification of key competencies: Collaborate with stakeholders to identify the essential competencies needed for effective disaster risk reduction. Provide competency-based learning opportunities to develop these skills.

  6. Coordinate with other sectors: Work with government agencies, the private sector, and civil society organizations to understand and address training and education needs that meet the requirements of disaster risk reduction jobs.

  7. Develop accessible and tailored courses: Create reliable and audience-appropriate courses that cater to individuals outside the traditional academic community. This includes offering courses with shorter timeframes, using non-technical terminology and concepts, and tailoring courses to local contexts to increase interest and participation.

  8. Collect and share data and information: Gather and disseminate data and information that support disaster risk reduction efforts. This includes sharing research findings, best practices, and relevant resources to enhance knowledge and inform decision-making.

Mass Casualty Management Committee:

Mass Casualty Incident


  1. Mass Casualty Incident: It refers to an event that results in a large number of injured individuals requiring medical attention, while there is a shortage of medical personnel to provide the necessary services.
  2. Mass Casualty Management: It involves providing on-the-spot medical care to a significant number of injured victims when there are limited medical resources available.
  3. Casualty Management: This involves providing immediate care to victims during a disaster, including rescue operations, emergency medical care, and the evacuation of trapped individuals. Triage plays a crucial role in determining the needs of injured victims.
  4. Triage: The process of sorting or categorizing victims during a disaster to maximize the number of survivors by prioritizing treatment for those who are most likely to benefit. Triage occurs at the scene of the disaster and at each stage of victim transport. Various personnel, including nurses, midwives, and allied health workers, are involved in triage operations, while physicians provide emergency care to critically injured victims.

Triage or Sorting Introduction:

The goal of triage is to identify which patients require immediate treatment and prioritize their care. Triage must be conducted at every stage of the operation, from the disaster scene to the arrival of the patient at a medical facility.

Aims of Triage:

  1. Identify priority cases: Determine the cases that require immediate attention and treatment.
  2. Organize and streamline case management: Efficiently manage and allocate resources for patient care.
  3. Minimize complications and save lives and limbs: Take appropriate actions to prevent complications and preserve the lives and limbs of the injured.
  4. Utilize resources effectively: Optimize the use of available resources to provide the best possible care to the victims.

Where is Sorting Done?

  1. Sorting is done at the site of the disaster if it is already managed by a medical team (state/local), or it is carried out upon the arrival of patients at a reception center or designated hospital.
  2. Approximately 60% of casualties require medical intervention, while 40% may only need first aid and follow-up care.

Four Categories Coding for Triage:

  1. Red (Most Urgent): Patients with life-threatening injuries, hypoxia, shock, chest wounds, head injuries, or 20-60% burns.
  2. Yellow (Urgent): Patients with multiple fractures, open fractures, spine injuries, etc., requiring urgent attention.
  3. Green: Patients with non-life-threatening injuries who can wait for more than two hours for treatment, such as simple fractures, minor burns, sprains, etc.
  4. Black: Dying or Dead: In a disaster, triage must prioritize the chances of survival, and victims in this category may be beyond help.

 Mass Casualty Management Committee:

The hospital should have a mass casualty management committee responsible for preparing the hospital’s contingency plan, coordinating with other hospitals and relevant institutions (e.g., police, fire), disseminating information, and conducting staff training.

 The committee should include members from medical administration, hospital administration, maintenance, emergency department, surgical department, and nursing services.

Phases of Emergency Management:
  1. Phase I: Alert of a possible disaster.
  2. Phase II: The actual occurrence of the disaster, where all portions of the plan are implemented.
  • Signposts: Clear signs should be posted at strategic locations in the hospital, indicating evacuation routes in case of an emergency.
  • Incoming Patient Area: Typically the casualty/emergency department of the hospital, which may be extended to accommodate a larger number of patients.
  • Areas in the Emergency Department: These include the triage area, resuscitation area for unstable patients, area for patients beyond salvage, area for brought-in dead, area for walking wounded, alternate area/ward for overcrowded situations, and an area to receive postoperative patients.
Patient Care in Casualty:
  1. Triage efforts focus on maximizing the number of lives saved rather than treating the sickest or most severely injured first.
  2. Nurses may assume physician roles, and physicians may work outside their specialty. Credentialing of providers may be granted on an emergency or temporary basis.
  3. Disposable supplies may be reused due to resource limitations.
  4. Providers may need to make treatment decisions based on clinical judgment if laboratory or radiology resources are exhausted.

Nursing Services:

  1. Conduct an accurate bed count for available medical-surgical, ICU, and isolation beds.
  2. Coordinate with in-patient services to evaluate patients who can be rapidly discharged.
  3. Ensure the availability of required staff and supplies.
Spread the love

3 thoughts on “Stakeholders in Disaster Management”

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Contact us to get permission to Copy

We encourage getting a pen and taking notes,

that way, the website will be useful.

Scroll to Top