Transverse myelitis is a rare neurological condition. It’s caused by inflammation (swelling) of the spinal cord.
The scars or lesions interrupt the communication between the nerves in the spinal cord and the rest of the body.
‘Transverse’ refers to the swelling being across the width of the spinal cord. It’s also sometimes used to describe swelling that only affects part of the width of the spinal cord.
Signs and Symptoms
- muscle weakness in the legs, and sometimes the arms
- mobility problems
- unusual sensations and numbness
- bladder problems
- bowel problems
- sexual problems
Types of Transverse Myelitis
There are three main types of Transverse Myelitis, including:
- Acute Transverse Myelitis (ATM) – the most common type, and usually presents with a sudden onset of symptoms.
- Subacute Transverse Myelitis (STM) – symptoms tend to develop over a few weeks to several months.
- Chronic Transverse Myelitis (CTM) – symptoms that last for six months or longer.
Causes of transverse myelitis
Sometimes transverse myelitis is caused by an autoimmune reaction. In autoimmune diseases, the immune system mistakes the body’s own tissue as dangerous and attacks it. This causes swelling that results in damage to the myelin sheath. This includes:
- neuromyelitis optica (NMO)
- myelin oligodendrocyte antibody (MOG) associated myelitis
- Sjögrens syndrome
Sometimes transverse myelitis is caused indirectly by a viral infection.
Transverse myelitis often develops after a viral infection like:
- hepatitis A
- herpes simplex
- influenza (flu)
- Varicella zoster (the virus that causes chicken pox and shingles)
- Bacterial infections such as syphilis might also lead to transverse myelitis.
- Some cancers might trigger an unusual immune response that can lead to transverse myelitis.
Diagnosing transverse myelitis
Some of the tests you may need to confirm transverse myelitis are:
Management of Transverse Myelitis.
Sometimes transverse myelitis requires no treatment as it will improve on its own. Sometimes patients may require treatment for their symptoms, the swelling, or the underlying cause.
There are different treatments available for transverse myelitis symptoms.
- Physiotherapy can help improve strength, and the muscle spasms and stiffness that may sometimes develop
- Techniques such as stretching exercises can help if your movement is restricted.
- If your muscle spasms are more severe, you may be prescribed a medicine that can relax your muscles. This will usually be either baclofen, gabapentin or tizanidine.
- These medicines all have side effects. You might experience dizziness, weakness, nausea and diarrhoea. Discuss which of these would be best for you with your healthcare professional.
- Mobility problems are often the result of muscle spasms and spasticity. Muscle weakness, or problems with balance can also cause mobility problems.
- If you have problems with mobility, your healthcare professional might suggest:
- an exercise programme supervised by a physiotherapist
- mobility aids, such as a walking stick, or a wheelchair
- home adaptations such as stair lifts or railings
- An occupational therapist can carry out an assessment of your home and suggest adaptations.
Treatment of the inflammation (swelling)
- Steroids. This can help with some types of transverse myelitis. Steroids are only given for a short period of time to avoid possible steroid side effects. The side effects could include reflux and stomach irritation, worsening infection, mood swings, and difficulty sleeping.
- Medication might help if you have an overactive bladder or need to pee frequently during the night.
- If you find it difficult to empty your bladder, advice from a continence nurse or physiotherapist can help. Hand-held external stimulators can help some people to start peeing or to empty the bladder.
- Catheter can empty the bladder when needed. You might be taught how to do intermittent self catheterisation (ISC).
- In rare cases, people with transverse myelitis may need a long-term catheter to keep the bladder emptying safely.
- It might be possible to treat mild to moderate constipation by changing your diet or taking laxatives.
- More severe constipation may need to be treated with suppositories, or an enema. During an enema, liquid medication is rinsed through your bottom and large bowel, which softens and flushes out your stools.
- Anti diarrhoea medication or pelvic floor exercises might help bowel incontinence.
- If you experience problems with less interest in sex or difficulty reaching orgasm, relationship counselling or seeing a sex therapist might help.
- If you have transverse myelitis and find it hard to get or maintain an erection (erectile dysfunction) you may be prescribed medication to increase the blood flow to the penis.
- A physiotherapist might be able to help with this pain by suggesting exercises or better seating positions.
- If your pain is more severe, you may be prescribed painkillers. Or, you might have a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) machine that stimulates your nerves.
- Neuropathic pain is caused by damage to your nerves and is usually sharp and stabbing. It can also occur in the form of extreme skin sensitivity, or a burning sensation.
- This type of pain can be treated using neuropathic painkillers.
Complications of Transverse Myelitis
Transverse Myelitis can lead to several complications, including:
- Bladder or bowel dysfunction
- Sexual dysfunction
- Chronic pain
- Respiratory failure
Nursing Diagnosis for Transverse Myelitis
- Impaired physical mobility related to muscle weakness, spasticity, or paralysis.
- Risk for impaired skin integrity related to prolonged bed rest, altered sensation, or pressure ulcers.
- Ineffective airway clearance related to respiratory muscle weakness, paralysis, or impaired cough reflex.
- Urinary incontinence or retention related to bladder dysfunction.
- Bowel incontinence or constipation related to bowel dysfunction.
- Risk for infection related to impaired immune function or catheterization.
- Chronic pain related to nerve damage or altered sensation.